Rural energy; Biomass resources; Energy consumption; Household; Agriculture; Crop productivity
A comparative analysis of the village level energy consumption pattern of different end-uses in the three un-electrified villages of India located in different districts of eastern Uttar Pradesh, is presented based on a census survey of households. This empirical study examines how the energy consumption pattern in the three villages-Maulaganj, Arro and Bishnapur-representing agriculturally advanced, moderate and backward economic categories, respectively, are influenced by the locally available biomass energy resources. The study reveals that in these villages the share of biomass fuels in the total energy consumed for domestic activities is as high as 98%. In agriculture, the share of animate energy is in the range of 70400%. Major findings in the domestic sector are: (i) firewood (logs and twigs), where easily available, is preferred to crop residues and dungcakes for domestic energy consumption; (ii) easy availability of wood encourages excess consumption; (iii) 18-42% more useful energy is consumed in winter than in summer for meeting cooking and water heating needs. Major findings in the agricultural sector are: (i) the agriculture practised in village Bishnapur is totally traditional (100% based on animate power) and this is reflected by lower yields of the two major crops, viz. wheat and paddy as compared to the other two villages; (ii) in spite of the higher diesel consumption for land preparation and irrigation in village Arro the yields of wheat and paddy are nearly double in village Maulaganj suggesting it has more productive land.