southwesterly surface wind stress; northern fresh water discharge; downwelling off Visakhapatnam; discharged from the Hooghli and Mahanadi rivers
A baroclinic numerical model is applied to evolve thermal structure near the coast. The driving
mechanism consists of wind-stress forcing representative of that applied during pre-monsoon (May), monsoon (July), and post-monsoon (November) seasons. During the monsoon season, a large quantity of fresh water is expected to be discharged from the Hooghli and Mahanadi rivers. Therefore, the
simulations are carded out for July with a combination of wind stress and northern boundary forcing.
The simulations show that the May winds are favourable for upwelling processes off Visakhapatnam.
The upwelling offVisakhapatnam expected in July in the presence of southwesterly surface wind stress forcing is suppressed by the northern fresh water discharge and replaced by local sinking. The simulations for November indicate that the winds are favourable only for downwelling off Visakhapatnam.