The paper deals with the abrasive wear investigations on various composites of phenolic resin filled with alumina powder and abraded against silicon carbide paper under dry and single pass condition. The data analysis was done using orthogonal experimental design method. The objective was to study the influence of variables such as filler concentration, load, sliding speed and abrading particle size on the abrasive wear performance of phenol-formaldehyde-based composites. Regression analysis of the data was carried out to develop equations for the composites in which the wear volumes of the specimens were expressed in terms of simultaneous contribution from the influence of load, abrading particle size, sliding speed and their mutual interactions. It was confirmed that among these factors load was the factor contributing most strongly to the wear of these composites. Sliding speed seemed to have least effect on the wear performance in the selected operating conditions. Worn surfaces were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) to have an insight into the wear mechanisms and particle dispersion in the bulk of the composites.