1,8-Dihydroxyanthraquinone anchored on silica gel: synthesis and application as solid phase extractant for lead(II), zinc(II) and cadmium(II) prior to their determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry
A new chelating matrix has been prepared by immobilizing 1,8-dihydroxyanthraquinone (DHAQ) on silica gel modified with (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane. After characterizing the matrix with thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), cross polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS) NMR and diffuse reflectance infrared fourier transformation (DRIFT) spectroscopy, it has been used to preconcentrate Pb(II), Cd(II) and Zn(II) prior to their determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The optimum pH ranges for quantitative sorption are 6.0–7.5, 7.0–8.0 and 6.0–8.0 for Pb, Zn, and Cd, respectively. All the metal ions can be desorbed with 2 mol l−1 HCl/HNO3. The sorption capacity of the matrix has been found to be 76.0, 180.0 and 70.2 μmol g−1 for Pb, Zn and Cd, respectively, with the preconcentration factor of 200. The limits upto which electrolytes NaNO3, NaCl, NaBr, Na2SO4, Na3PO4 sodium citrate, EDTA, glycine and humic acid and cations Ca(II), Mg(II), Cu(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Mn(II) Al(III), Cr(III) and Fe(III) can co-exist with the metal ions during their sorption without any adverse effect are reported. The lowest concentration of metal ions for quantitative recovery is 5.0 ng ml−1 The simultaneous enrichment and determination of all the metals is possible if total load of metal ions is less than sorption capacity. The flame AAS was used to determine these metal ions in underground, tap and river water samples (relative standard deviation (R.S.D.)≤6.3%) after their enrichment with the present matrix.