glazing area; cold-cloudy; cold-sunny; heat transmission; solar radiation
This study determines the glazing area in direct gain passive systems needed to ensure thermal comfort inside a building (room air temperature 20 ± 2°C). A 4 m × 4 m × 3 m single zone isolated house is analyzed in three different types of climates namely composite (8°C to 20°C, New Delhi), cold-cloudy (−2°C to 5°C, Srinagar), and cold-sunny (−14°C to −3°C, Leh). The analysis is based on the periodic solution of the heat conduction equations describing heat transmission in the building components, floor, walls, and roof, and the Fourier representation of the ambient temperature vnd the total solar radiation intercepted by the building envelope. Two types of construction are analyzed: the first type is a traditional construction with 22-cm-thick brick wall, plastered 15 mm on both the sides (U = 2.0 W m−2 K−1); and the second one is of the same type but with 10 cm of expanded polystyrene insulation on all the four walls and the roof (U = 0.31 W m−2 K−1). It is found that for traditional construction with U = 2.0 W m−2 K−1, the glazing U value has almost no effect on the room temperature even for large variation of the glazing area (10% to 40%, expressed in terms of percentage of floor area). For a well-insulated house (U = 0.31 W m−2 K−1), the glazing U value has no effect upon the room air temperature if the glazing area is small (less than 10%). The position of the insulation on the external surfaces is more effective in reducing large inroom air temperature. Finally, for an insulated house, we recommended glazing is 30%, 20%, and 10% for cold-sunny, cold-cloudy, and composite climates, respectively.