The work presents the analysis of the concentrated efforts put in by Indian technologists for harnessing maximum energy from thermal power stations (TPS). The prime objectives have been to extract maximum energy from coal. All the controllable losses should be minimized in all operations and systems. Model outlines and practices followed by energy efficient power stations have been summarized. Measures to consume the least possible steam, materials, and petroleum products have been studied in detail. The role of condenser vacuum, excess air, all types of auxiliary (works) power, and an energy audit have been investigated in maximizing power generation. Approaches either to renovate, repair or retrofit or replace the ageing components having poor economic performance with modern technologies have been illustrated. The present system and technologies would be obsolete and economically and enegy-wise highly inefficient by the turn of the century. Thus developed/currently advanced and futuristic (under advanced stages of development) technologies have been listed for applications now or later. In spite of spending 20% of total planned expenditure since 1950 on power, the significance of energy conservation for bridging the energy gap should remain on the top of the Indian energy alternatives list, according to the conclusions of the present study.