solar gain; solar passive; army shelters; dynamic simulation; steady-state analysis
The concept of solar gain factor and the overall heat loss coefficient, obtained for solar passive
heating concepts, has been extended to size these as building elements for different climatic conditions. As an example, India's four climatic zones where winter heating is required have been selected and the required area of passive heating concepts calculated by a steady-state analysis applied to a single zone building. The size of various concepts expressed as percentages of the south wall area are independent of the building size as confirmed for the case of army shelters in cold and sunny conditions of Laddakh in northern India. For a building with capacity effects in walls and roof, the dynamic simulation confirms the values of room temperature at a comfortable level assumed tO be 18.3°C in the steady-state analysis.